Progress in Science Education (PriSE) <p>Science education is a highly dynamic field of applied and basic research and of research-based development. Its ideas and problems arise at the intersection of theoretical and empirical research and of educational practice in science classrooms, informal learning and teacher education, of the important and manifold relations of modern societies with science and education, and of a scientific, evidence-based approach to science teaching and learning and science literacy.</p><p>In this framework, <strong>Progress in Science Education (PriSE)</strong> aims at fostering a stimulating exchange between researchers, teachers, and other stakeholders in the field, trying to investigate their ideas and visions, and to suggest approaches for an effective and sustainable development of science education in and out of school.</p> CERN en-US Progress in Science Education (PriSE) 2405-6057 <p><span style="font-size: medium;">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span></p><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 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However, it is noticeable that the terms "digital" and "analog" are often not understood. In a preliminary survey, teachers were asked about their concepts about both terms as well as of the terms “digitization” and “digitalization”. Uncertainty about these terms and the phrase "age of digitalization" seems to be widespread. A fundamental clarification of the terms "digital" and "analog" is an important basis for education and discourse. Understanding these terms and current developments is necessary to make decent sound decisions, e.g. regarding the handling of digital technology. Technical education serves not least the overarching educational goal of developing autonomy. Thus, it is an important goal for teachers to build technical content knowledge. The following is a proposal to make the terms "digital" and "analog" accessible and understandable for technical education teachers using the example of audio technology. Teachers worked out the proposed audio-technical stations and illustrative material within the framework of further training, especially in dialogue with the experts of the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. Interviews were analyzed using objective hermeneutics, and it was investigated whether and to what extent the materials and dialogue had supported the teachers in clarifying the terms "analog" and "digital" and improved technical content knowledge.<br />Within the framework of project-related contributions (PgB, 2017 - 2020), various universities of applied sciences and universities of teacher education in Switzerland are implementing cross-university MINT projects to train and further educate teachers. The aim is to encourage children and young people - especially girls and young women – to take a greater interest in MINT topics via the teachers. This requires teachers to have the appropriate content knowledge. This kind of knowledge can be acquired through phenomenological processes. However, there are few proposals for phenomenological access to technology for teacher training.</p> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The present study developed training content for technical education teachers in primary schools and aims to make the terms "digital" and "analog" accessible and understandable for them. The proposal was assessed by the teachers regarding the question if it was suitable to acquire knowledge and create understanding.</p> <p><strong>Sample/Setting:</strong> The approach was tested with 21 teachers from primary schools in the context of a teacher training program that was part of a PgB MINT education project of the PH FHNW ( In a preliminary survey, teachers were asked about their concepts about digitization and digitalization. After a one-day teacher training course, which was conducted by lecturers from the University of Applied Sciences and Arts (School of Education and University of Technology), open interviews were conducted with the teachers, in which they were asked to assess the training with regards to building up an understanding of the terms "analog" and "digital".</p> <p><strong>Design and Methods</strong>: The preliminary statements and the statements made by the teachers in the final interviews were analyzed using objective hermeneutics It was thus possible to monitor whether and to what extent the training course had supported the teachers in clarifying the terms "analog" and "digital".</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The educational training "Audio technology to clarify the terms analog and digital" improved teachers understanding of the terms “analog” and “digital”. This could be a first crucial step to approach broader concepts of digitization, digitalization and digital transformation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Even though the training course aimed at teachers, it seems to be possible to transfer some of the contents directly into school lessons. It seems worthwhile to develop further examples of phenomenological approaches in combination with Wagenschein’s principles of "genetic", "socratic" and "exemplary" learning to understand analog and digital technology.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: analog and digital technology; phenomenological access, socratic-genetic-exemplary learning, audio technology</p> <p><strong>Received</strong>: February 2020. Accepted: June 2020.</p> Svantje Schumann Copyright (c) 2020 The Author/s 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 3 2 22 28 10.25321/prise.2020.965 Editorial: Proceedings of the DiNat Forum 2020 Kostas Kampourakis Andreas Müller Copyright (c) 2020 The Author/s 2020-05-29 2020-05-29 3 2 10.25321/prise.2020.1059 Professional Development in the School Institute “Discovery Experimentation” – Framework and First Results <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p><p>This article introduces a Design- and Effect Framework for Professional Development (PD), the research design for a validating intervention study, and first findings from this study. The PD aimed at introducing teachers to a method of inquiry-based experimentation (Discovery Experimentation); During 1.5 academic years teachers attended workshops, were visited in their lessons and coached. Teachers were monitored regarding the development of their beliefs towards inquiry-based experimentation, their respective professional content knowledge (PCK), and their teaching practice. Results suggest that the PD can contribute to improving teachers’ beliefs towards inquiry-based experimentation. Developments in PCK appear to be quite low but might be affected by the small realized sample at the time of reporting.</p><p><strong><em>Background</em></strong>: Professional development (PD) in science education is understood to be influenced by personal dispositions as well as by the quality of formal learning opportunities for teachers. Some beneficial promotors of PD can be identified: duration of a PD programme, active learning of participants, content focus, coherence, collective participation. Respecting these promotors in PD programmes is expected to favourably influence teachers’ professional knowledge, their beliefs about teaching, their teaching practices, and – in extension – student achievement. All these aspects (development of professional competence, promotors of PD, relevant goal variables of PD) can be merged into a coherent framework that can inform empirical studies as well as the design of PD.</p><p> </p><p><strong><em>Purpose</em></strong> of this study is to check the validity of one of the promotors by contrasting variant settings regarding “active learning” in two formats of PD. In one of these, participants are encouraged to intensively collaborate and coach each other (PD institute) while teachers’ progress in the other format (personal PD) is left to their own disposal with the coaching function falling exclusively to the professional developers.</p><p> </p><p><strong><em>Sample/Setting:</em></strong> Forty-six teachers from eight secondary schools in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany) participated in the PD programme (PD institute: <em>n </em>= 22, personal PD: <em>n </em>= 24). The programme lasted for three consecutive semesters (1.5 academic years). Teachers were introduced to a novel approach to teaching through inquiry: “Discovery Experimentation” as a form of opened experimentation (semester 1). All the teachers were observed twice in their teaching (semesters 1 and 2) which formed the core of subsequent coaching sessions either in the teacher group (PD institute) or individually with professional developers (personal PD). The third semester served as a fade-out phase to still have professional developers available but without intensified personal engagement.</p><p> </p><p><strong><em>Design Methods</em></strong>: This is a quasi-experimental study. Quantitative data were surveyed from teachers – over four points of measurement – on their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and their beliefs about teaching with opened experimentation. Paper-and-pencil-tests and -questionnaires prove to survey reliably (PCK: <em>α </em>= .853, beliefs: average <em>α </em>= .738). Most teachers were video-taped twice (semesters 1 and 2); this is the focus of a separate video study on teaching practices whose results are pending. Data survey has not yet been completed – thus, the reported data are provisional allowing, nonetheless, to identify general trends.</p><p><strong><em> </em></strong></p><p><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: Trends in teachers’ developing beliefs about teaching with opened forms of experimentation suggest that the PD can contribute to advancing these. Regarding the experimental conditions, the PD institute appears more promising when it comes to improving an understanding of the significance of opened experimentation, and to decrease inhibitors to implementing opened experimentation. We suggest that this is due to increased discourse amongst teachers in the PD institute. PCK develops positively for the duration of the programme but without remarkable effect.</p><p> </p><p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong><strong><em>/Implications for classroom practice and future research: </em></strong>Professional developers should actively encourage teachers to collaborate and discuss content and implications from a PD programme. Left to their own impetus, teachers can easily miss (if not avoid) the development potentials of a formal learning opportunity. This might, ultimately, render any attempts at PD fruitless.</p><p> </p> Markus Emden Armin Baur Arne Bewersdorff Copyright (c) 2020 The Author/s 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 3 2 1 9 10.25321/prise.2020.967 Sense of Belonging to Science – Entwicklung eines Erhebungsinstruments für Lehramtsstudierende <p><strong>Hintergrund:</strong> Diverse Studien weisen darauf hin, dass der Bildungserfolg von Studierenden auch durch ihren Sense of Belonging – das Ausmaß, in dem sich eine Person einem bestimmten sozialen Umfeld zugehörig fühlt – bedingt ist. Bislang wurde allerdings Sense of Belonging weitgehend domänenunspezifisch untersucht. Insbesondere Studien, die den Sense of Belonging to Science (SBS) angehender Naturwissenschaftslehrkräfte untersuchten, fehlen nahezu vollständig. Ein Grund hierfür ist, dass es an Instrumenten mangelt, mit denen eine Erfassung des SBS von Lehramtsstudierenden zu bestimmten Fachdomänen möglich ist.</p> <p><br /><strong>Ziel:</strong> Die vorgestellte explorative Studie widmet sich der Frage, inwieweit sich mit Hilfe eines Selbstauskunftsfragebogens der SBS von Lehramtsstudierenden erfassen lässt.</p> <p><strong>Stichprobe/Rahmen:</strong> Die Stichprobe umfasst 129 Lehramtsstudierende, die mindestens ein naturwissenschaftliches Unterrichtsfach studieren. Die Erhebung fand im Rahmen der naturwissenschaftsdidaktischen Lehrveranstaltungen an der Universität Hamburg (Deutschland) im Sommersemester 2019 statt.</p> <p><br /><strong>Design und Methode:</strong> Inspiriert durch bestehende Instrumente wurde ein Likert-Skalen-Fragebogen zur Erfassung von SBS entwickelt. Die erhobenen Daten wurden durch eine explorative Faktorenanalyse ausgewertet. Items mit Kommuna-litäten unter .50 und substantiellen Querladungen wurden ausgeschlossen. Die Validität des Fragebogens durch Korrelations- und differenzielle Analysen geprüft.</p> <p><br /><strong>Ergebnisse:</strong> Aus der Datenanalyse ging hervor, dass sich der entwickelte Fragebogen in 5 Subskalen gliedert, aus denen eine Kompositskala gebildet werden kann. Die fünf Subskalen besitzen eine (sehr) gute Reliabilität, die Reliabilität der Kompositskala ist akzeptabel. Die Korrelationsanalysen zeigen, dass SBS von anderen Konstrukten wie dem Interesse an Naturwissenschaften oder der Zugehörigkeit zur eigenen Hochschule unterscheidbar ist. Darüber hinaus zeigen differenzielle Analysen, dass sowohl Männer als auch Studierende, die ein umfangreicheres naturwissenschaftliches Studium absolvieren, einen signifikant höheren SBS als Frauen oder Studierende, die ein weniger umfangreiches naturwissenschaftliches Studium absolvieren.</p> <p><br /><strong>Schlussfolgerungen:</strong> Die Ergebnisse der explorativen Datenanalyse weisen darauf hin, dass der entwickelte Fragebogen den SBS von Lehramtsstudierenden reliabel und valide zu erfassen vermag. Mögliche Implikationen der vorliegenden Studie für die naturwissenschaftsdidaktische Forschung sowie für die Ausbildung von Naturwissenschaftslehrer*innen werden am Ende dieses Beitrags skizziert.</p> <p><br /><strong>Schlagworte</strong>: Sense of Belonging, universitäre Naturwissenschaftslehrerbildung, Lehramtsstudierende, Fragebogenkonstruktion</p> Markus Sebastian Feser Copyright (c) 2020 The Author/s 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 3 2 10 21 10.25321/prise.2020.968