Bibliographic references

References should be cited in the text using numbers within square brackets: ‘example [1], example [1, 2], example [1–5]’, or ‘see Ref. [1], Refs. [1–5]’. The word ‘Reference’ should be written in full if this word occurs at the beginning of a sentence. References should appear in consecutive numerical order in the text and should be listed in numerical order at the end of the text. Punctuation can be used either within or outside the brackets, but please ensure that one method is used consistently throughout the contribution.

List of references

Unless you are near the bottom of the last page of text, do not start a new page for the list of references, but continue on the same page. The list of references should appear as an unnumbered subsection, entitled ‘References’.

The references themselves are numbered automatically. Note that in the list of references it is unnecessary to state the title of an article or chapter in proceedings or in a collection of papers unless a page number cannot be quoted, e.g., for forthcoming publications.

For abbreviations of names of journals quoted in the references, see Journal abbreviations. The Reviews of Modern Physics site: also has a list.

Please avoid as much as possible reference to Web-sites unless you are reasonably sure that the links are stable and not subject to change in the future. In any case web-sites should be cited with the complete URL and date of last access. Anytime you mention a Web-site, please make sure that the link is working fine.

If applicable, please always add the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) of the publication as part of the citation (see References to a Journal Article as an example).

References should be presented as follows:

References to a Journal Article

Only authors and Journal’s details (abbreviations, volume, year, first page) should be cited. If more than 3 authors, please follow the second example below. If there are 4 authors please cite them all.

S.L. Glashow, J. Iliopoulos and L. Maiani, Phys. Rev. D2 (1970) 1285,

F. Laue et al. (STAR Collaboration), J. Phys. G31 (2005) S27,

References to Books

L.S. Birks, Electron Probe Microanalysis, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1971), p. 40.

R.G. Fuller, in Point Defects in Solids, Eds. J.H. Crawford, Jr. and L.M. Slifkin (Plenum, New York, 1972), Vol. 1, Chap. 2, pp. 103–150.

References to Reports

A theoretical and experimental comparison of proton and deuteron acceleration in the CERN Linear Accelerator, edited by T. Sluyters, CERN1964–022 (CERN, Geneva, 1964),

Design study of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): a multiparticle collider in the LEP tunnel, edited by the LHC Study Group, CERN1991–03 (CERN, Geneva, 1991),

H. Haseroth et al., Ion acceleration in the CERN Linac 1, Linear Accelerator Conf., Stanford, Calif., 1986 (SLAC-Report-303, Stanford, Calif., 1986), p. 355.

B.H. Wolf et al., Performance of the oxygen injector for the CERN Linac 1, Report GSI–86–2 (1986).

P. Grafström, Note on the possibility to transport lead ions in the SPS secondary beams, Report to the SPSC by the Heavy Ion Discussion Group, CERN/SPSC 87–52, SPSC/T27 (1987), p. 43.

References to Conference Proceedings (Published as Monographs)

H. Haseroth, Light ions at CERN, Proc. Workshop on Quark Matter Formation and Heavy Ion Collisions, Bielefeld, 1982, Eds. M. Jacob and H. Satz (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982), p. 557.

Y.D. Beznogikh et al., Laser multicharge ion source of the Dubna Synchrophasotron, Proc. Workshop on High-Energy Ion–Atom Collisions, Debrecen, Hungary, 1987 (Lecture Notes in Physics No. 29, Springer, Berlin, 1988), p. 526.

N. Angert, E. Brouzet, R. Garoby, S. Hancock, H. Haseroth, C.E. Hill, K. Schindl and P. Têtu, Accelerating and separating mixed beams of ions with similar charge to mass ratio in the CERN PS complex, Proc. European Particle Accelerator Conf., Rome, 1988, Ed. S. Tazzari (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), vol. 2, p. 1367.

References to Conference Proceedings (Published in Journals)

P. Asboe-Hansen, O. Barbalat, D. Boussard, M. Bouthéon, J. Gareyte, H. Haseroth, J. Jamsek, and S. Myers, Acceleration and stacking of deuterons in the CERN PS and ISR, Proc. 7th Particle Accelerator Conf., Chicago, 1977 [IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-24 (1977) 1557].


J.B. Danda, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1965.

Web-sites, last accessed 11 June 2014.

If you need to provide a bibliography, this should come after the list of references.

If you have appendices with references cited therein, the list of references must follow the appendices. If no references are cited in the appendices, the list of references precedes the appendices.