Pendulum Equations and Low Gain Regime

Sven Reiche


This paper introduces the theoretical framework for the motion of an electron in the periodic field of an undulator and wiggler. It is a continuation of the previous article on motion in the undulator but includes the interaction with a co-propagating radiation field. The longitudinal motion of each electron is similar to a pendulum and, in resonance with the co-propagating field, energy can be exchanged between the electron beam and the radiation field in the small signal low-gain regime of the free-electron laser.


Free-electron laser; theory; low-gain regime; resonance condition.

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