Injection: Hadron Beams

Chiara Bracco


The injection process consists in placing a particle beam into a circular hadron accelerator or accumulator at the right time, on the correct orbit, with the right phase-space parameters and minimising the beam losses. Injection insertions are one of the most complex parts of an accelerator and, if not properly designed, can compromise the beam quality and, in the worst case, bring to machine damage.
An overview on the main principles and hardware used for single, multi-turn and charge-exchange injection systems are presented. Common injection errors and their consequences are explained together with the definition of the machine aperture and the concept of protection devices. Examples of non-conventional injection processes are introduced.



single-turn; multi-turns; charge-exchange; mismatch; aperture; machine protection.

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