Chapter 2: Machine layout and performance


  • G. Arduini
  • R. Bruce
  • R. De Maria
  • M. Giovannozzi
  • G. Iadarola
  • J. Jowett
  • E. Métral
  • Y. Papaphilippou
  • R. Tomás Garcia



The goal of the High-luminosity upgrade of the LHC is to deliver an integrated luminosity of at least 250 fb-1 per year (assuming at least 160 days of operation at high-luminosity) in each of the two high-luminosity general-purpose detectors, ATLAS and CMS, located at the interaction points (IP) 1 and 5, respectively. The ATLAS and CMS detectors will be upgraded to handle an average pile-up, the number of events per bunch crossing, of at least 140 (ultimately 200), corresponding to an instantaneous luminosity of approximately 5 × 1034 cm-2  s-1 (ultimately 7.5 × 1034 cm-2 s-1) for operation with 25 ns beams consisting of 2760 bunches at 7 TeV, and for an inelastic cross-section σin = 81 mb. The detectors are also expected to handle a peak line density of pile-up events of at least 1.3 events per mm per bunch crossing and ultimately larger values with limited reduction of the detection efficiency.


2020-12-17 — Updated on 2020-12-17