Chapter 10: Energy deposition and radiation to electronics
Proton–proton inelastic collisions taking place inside the four LHC detectors generate a large number of secondary particles with an average multiplicity of approximately 120 per single proton–proton interaction with 7 TeV beams, but with very substantial fluctuations over different events. Moving away from the interaction point (IP), this multiform population evolves, even before touching the surrounding material, because of the decay of unstable particles (in particular neutral pions decaying into photon pairs).
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